This is a scientific and philosophical autobiography written around a collection of Denis Noble's most significant papers. It traces a remarkable journey from naive reductionism to a rigorous systems approach to living systems. It is rigorous because Denis Noble was one of the first biologists to construct computer models of cells and organs of the body. His theoretical work is entirely mathematically based, with no room for ambiguity. Far from the denigration of the systems approach as holistic 'hand-waving', his work is now regarded by pharmaceutical companies and regulators as the gold standard of modelling in the development of new medication.Systems Biology is an idea in search of a definition. This book explains why this is true: it is an approach rather than a subject. Denis Noble's work is one of the clearest examples of the systems approach in practice since it reveals the nature of some of the forms of downward causation in multilevel analysis. The story will delight readers who like to see how scientific controversy is resolved, since many of the developments described in each chapter were highly controversial when they occurred.
These Practice Papers have been written to match the Higher Level AQA GCSE Biology course as closely as possible, making them ideal preparation for the real AQA exams. This pack contains two complete sets of exam-style Biology tests (that's six papers in total), plus a detailed answer booklet with a mark scheme and hints.
As Conservative party leader from 1923 to 1937 and three times prime minister, Stanley Baldwin was one of the pre-eminent public figures of interwar Britain. This edition of his letters, reports of his private conversations and related documents and illustrations, has two purposes. It publishes sources giving considerable insight into the nature and conduct of Conservative politics and government, with inside accounts of such national events as the destruction of the Lloyd George coalition, the protectionist election, and the Abdication. It also provides a documentary life and portrait of an intriguing, much-liked but controversial statesman. The personal qualities of few modern politicians have aroused so much puzzlement and criticism as Baldwin's. This volume will therefore be indispensable for understanding his character and career and for future studies of British politics and public life in the 1920s and 1930s.
Reflex Media Articles
Reflex Media Books